Carbon Emissions

Sustainability comes into focus

While the number of countries that have pledged to achieve net-zero emissions now covers around 70% of global emissions of CO2, most pledges do not have adequate near-term policies and measures. Moreover, even if successfully fulfilled, the pledges so far still put the world on track for 2.7C of warming by 2100, far beyond the "below 2C" goals of the Paris climate accord, according to the latest report from the UN Environment Programme.

In 2015, the year of the Paris accord, emissions from human activities were nearly 47Bt of greenhouse gases, expressed as carbon dioxide equivalents. By 2020, this level was an estimated 52Bt. The rise, however, has slowed due to the rapid deployment of cleaner energy systems.

About 60% of GHG emissions come from just 10 countries, while the 100 least-emitting contributed less than 3%. Energy makes up nearly three-quarters of global emissions, followed by agriculture. Within the energy sector, the largest emitting sector is electricity and heat generation, followed by transportation and manufacturing. Land use, land use-change and forestry are both a source and sink of emissions and key sector to get to net-zero emissions.

"Pledges to achieve net- zero now covers around 70% of global emissions of CO2, but most do not have near-term policies."

"About 60% of GHG
emissions come from just
10 countries, while the 100
least-emitting contribute less than 3%."

Global Energy-Related CO2 Emissions, 1990-2021
CO2 Gt
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